- Health Benefits of Pomegranate
- Pomegranate nutrition facts
- Table 1. Pomegranate (Raw) Nutrition Content
- How to Eat a Pomegranate
- How do you remove the seeds/arils ?
- How do you juice a pomegranate ?
- Pomegranate Seed
- Pomegranate Juice and Peel
- Pomegranate Tree’s Bark and Roots
- Health effects of Pomegranate
- Pomegranate safety
Health Benefits of Pomegranate
The pomegranate (Punica garanatum L.) fruit has a leathery rind (or husk) with many little pockets of edible seeds and juice inside. Researchers have studied all parts of the pomegranate for their potential health benefits. Those parts include the fruit, seed, seed oil, tannin-rich peel, root, leaf, and flower. The pomegranate has been used as a dietary supplement for many conditions including wounds, heart conditions, intestinal problems, and as a gargle for a sore throat.
Pomegranate is made into capsules, extracts, teas, powders, and juice products 1).
Pomegranate is a long-lived and drought-tolerant plant. Arid and semiarid zones are popular for growing pomegranate trees. They are widely cultivated in Iran, India, and the Mediterranean countries such as Turkey, Egypt, Tunisia, Spain, and Morocco 2). However, pomegranate is categorized as a berry but it belongs to its own botanical family, Punicaceae. The only genus is Punica, with one predominant species called P. granatum 3).
The pomegranate is an ancient fruit native to regions from the Himalayas in northern India to Iran. In recent years, however, cultivation of pomegranate has disseminated throughout many dry regions of the world, including parts of the United States. The trees can grow up to 30 feet in height. The leaves are opposite, narrow, oblong with 3-7 cm long and 2 cm broad. It has bright red, orange, or pink flowers, which are 3 cm in diameter with four to five petals. Edible pomegranate fruit has a rounded hexagonal shape, with 5-12 cm in diameter and weighing 200 g. The thick skin surrounds around 600 arils, which encapsulates the seeds 4).
Apart from fruit, pomegranate is available in various forms such as bottled juice (fresh or concentrated), powdered capsules, and tablets, which are derived from seed, fermented juice, peel, leaf and flower, gelatin capsules of seed oil extracts, dry or beverage tea from leaves or seeds, and other food productions such as jams, jellies, sauces, salad dressings, and vinegars. Anardana, which is the powdered form of pomegranate seed, is used as a form of spice 5).
Pomegranate nutrition facts
The 100 g edible portion of pomegranate contains water (77.93 g), protein (1.67 g), lipids (1.17 g), ash (0.53 g), carbohydrates (18.7 g), fiber (4 g) and sugars (13.67 g) (see Table 1).
Table 1. Pomegranate (Raw) Nutrition Content
Value per 100 g
cup arils (seed/juice sacs) 87 g
pomegranate (4″ dia) 282 g
|Total lipid (fat)||g||1.17||1.02||3.30|
|Carbohydrate, by difference||g||18.70||16.27||52.73|
|Fiber, total dietary||g||4.0||3.5||11.3|
|Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid||mg||10.2||8.9||28.8|
|Vitamin A, RAE||µg||0||0||0|
|Vitamin A, IU||IU||0||0||0|
|Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol)||mg||0.60||0.52||1.69|
|Vitamin D (D2 + D3)||µg||0.0||0.0||0.0|
|Vitamin K (phylloquinone)||µg||16.4||14.3||46.2|
|Fatty acids, total saturated||g||0.120||0.104||0.338|
|Fatty acids, total monounsaturated||g||0.093||0.081||0.262|
|Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated||g||0.079||0.069||0.223|
|Fatty acids, total trans||g||0.000||0.000||0.000|
How to Eat a Pomegranate
Inside a pomegranate are those glistening red jewels – they are called arils (juice sacs). The arils are full of delicious, nutritious sweet juice that surround a small white crunchy seed. You can eat the whole arils including the fiber-rich seeds, or spit out the seeds if you prefer- it’s your choice. The rind and the white membranes surrounding the arils are bitter and we don’t suggest eating them- although some say even that part of the pomegranate has medicinal value.
How do you remove the seeds/arils ?
To remove the seeds follow this simple 3 steps process:
Step 1. Cut the crown end off a pomegranate. Then cut the pomegranate in half vertically.
Step 2. Hold the pomegranate half, cut side down, over a deep bowl the roll out the arils with your fingers and discard everything else.
Step 3. Strain out the water. Then eat the succulent arils whole, seeds and all.
How do you juice a pomegranate ?
There are 3 main methods to get fresh squeezed juice:
- Juicer Method: Cut the fresh pomegranate in half as you would a grapefruit. The Pomegranate Council 8) recommends using a hand-press juicer to juice a pomegranate. If you use an electric juicer, take care not to juice the membrane, so that the juice remains sweet. Strain the juice through a cheesecloth-lined strainer or sieve. Be cautious, as pomegranate juice can stain.
- Blender Method: Place 1 ½ to 2 cups seeds in a blender; blend until liquefied. Pour through a cheesecloth-lined strainer or sieve.
- Rolling Method: On a hard surface, press the palm of your hand against a pomegranate and gently roll to break all of the seeds inside (crackling stops when all seeds have broken open). Pierce the rind and squeeze out juice, or poke in a straw and press to release the juice. NOTE: Rolling can be done inside a plastic bag to contain any juice that may leak through the skin 9).
About 18% of dried and cleaned white seeds are oil. The oil is rich in punicic acid (65%), which is a triple conjugated 18-carbon fatty acid. There are some phytoestrogen compounds in pomegranate seeds that have sex steroid hormones similar to those in humankind. The 17-alpha-estradiol is a mirror-image version of estrogen 10).
Pomegranate Juice and Peel
Pomegranate juice is a good source of fructose, sucrose, and glucose. It also has some of the simple organic acids such as ascorbic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid, and malic acid. In addition, it contains small amounts of all amino acids, specifically proline, methionine, and valine. Both the juice and peel are rich in polyphenols. The largest classes include tannins and flavonoids that indicate pharmacological potential of pomegranate due to their strange antioxidative and preservative activities 11).
Ellagitannin is a type of tannins; it can be broken down into hydroxybenzoic acid such as ellagic acid. It is widely used in plastic surgeries, which prevents skin flap’s death due to its antioxidant activity. Two other ellagitannins that are found in both pomegranate juice and peel are punicalagin and punicalin. Several classes of pomegranate flavonoids include anthocyanins, flavan 3-ols, and flavonols. Pomegranate juice and peel have catechins with a high antioxidant activity. They are essential compounds of anthocyanin’s production with antioxidant and inflammatory role. Anthocyanins cause the red color of juice, which is not found in the peel. All pomegranate flavonoids show antioxidant activity with indirect inhibition of inflammatory markers such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) 12).
Pomegranate Tree’s Bark and Roots
The pomegranate tree’s bark and roots are rich sources of chemicals called alkaloids. They are carbon-based substances; they were used to treat worms in the human gastrointestinal tract in traditional medicine 13).
Health effects of Pomegranate
Pomegranate has been heavily used in various ancient medicines, such as Ayurveda, for treatment of diabetes. As a result of its rapidly increasing production and consumption throughout the world, a considerable amount of recent research has explored the potential of pomegranate to fight for obesity and diabetes.
A study in male mice showed that consumption of pomegranate seed oil reduced weight gain, improved key markers that lead to the development of type-2 diabetes, and improved insulin sensitivity – all suggesting a diminished develpoment to type-2 diabetes 14). Experiments in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes demonstrated that punicic acid, a conjugated linolenic acid found in pomegranate, activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ), an important target of insulin action and energy metabolism. Pucinic acid also augmented PPARγ downstream gene expression, and demonstrates an impaired ability to alleviate the pathogenesis of diabetes in PPARγ knockdown immune cells 15). This suggests that pomegranate may be a natural complement to the synthetic thiazolidinediones (anti-diabetic drugs and PPAR-γ agonists), and alleviate pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes through a PPAR-γ mediated mechanism. In the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rat model, pomegranate seed oil rich in punicic acid significantly decreased hepatic triacylglycerol contents and levels of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) , which can be preventive for development of hepatic steatosis 16). In obese rats, a model of metabolic syndrome, supplementation with pomegranate fruit extract and juice markedly decreased expression of vascular inflammatory markers such as thrombospondin and TGF-β 17). Also, a 4 week clinical trial administering 400 mg of pomegranate seed oil twice a day in hyperlipidemic subjects significantly improved the lipid profile as shown by a decreased triglyceride:HDL “good” cholesterol ratio 18).
Furthermore, pomegranate has shown dramatic antioxidant potential. It has been shown that pomegranate fruit extract, which is rich in polyphenolic antioxidants, represses the expression of oxidation-sensitive genes at the site of stress. More recently, studies show that pomegranate juice extract may prevent high blood pressure induced by Angiotensin II in diabetic rats by ameliorating oxidative stress and inhibiting Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity 19). Research is also heading towards development of a synergistic combination of various extracts. Recently, Fenercioglu et al 20) demonstrated antagonizing effects on oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation of a supplement containing pomegranate extract, green tea extract, and absorbic acid in type 2 diabetic patients. All the above mentioned results clearly suggest that pomegranate can play an important role in the prevention of diabetes, obesity and their associated complication. Basis on these findings it can be suggested that pomegranate can considered as a rational complementary therapeutic agent to ameliorate obesity, diabetes and the resultant metabolic syndrome.
Pomegranate can induce its beneficial effects through its various metabolites. The antioxidant and antiatherosclerotic potentials of pomegranate are mainly relevant to the high polyphenol concentrations in pomegranate fruit such as ellagitannins and hydrolysable tannins 21). COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes and IL-1 β activity can be inhibited by pomegranate fruit extract 22).
It is suggested that pomegranate can antagonize the stimulation of mRNA of MMP-9 in THP-1/monocytes. The whole fruit and compounds inhibit TNF-induced MMP-9 promoter activity 23). Urolithins are metabolites that are metabolized by the human intestinal microflora. These compounds decreased MMP-9 sretion and mRNA levels induced by HZ or TNF. It is suggested that ellagitannins are responsible for the control of excessive production of MMP-9, which could result in decreased production of noxious cytokine TNF 24). TNF cytokines promote NFκB binding to target sequences while inducing transcription of several genes such as the MMP-9 gene 25). Ellagitannins prevent NFκB promoter activity by blocking NFκB-driven transcription and affecting the entire cytokine cascade. Ellagitannins inhibit the activation of inflammatory pathways such as MAPK 26). In addition, pomegranate compounds could inhibit angiogenesis through the downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in cancers 27).
After lung cancer, the second leading cause of male cancer death is prostate cancer worldwide. Its progress before onset of symptoms is slow; therefore, pharmacological and nutritional interventions could affect the quality of patient’s life by delaying its development 28).
It was shown that pomegranate fruit could be used in the treatment of human prostate cancer because it could inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis. It leads to induction of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and Bak) and downregulation of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-xL and Bcl-2) 29). Moreover, the presence of NFκB and cell viability of prostate cancer cell lines has been inhibited when using pomegranate fruit extract, because it blocks NFκB 30). Polyphenols of fermented juice and pomegranate oil can inhibit the proliferation of LNCaP (epithelial cell line derived from a human prostate carcinoma), PC-3, and DU145 human prostate cancer cell lines. These effects were the result of changes in cell cycle distribution and apoptosis induction 31). In addition, it is reported that pomegranate fruit extract oral administration in nude mice implanted with androgen-sensitive CWR22RV1 cells caused significant decrease in serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and inhibited tumor growth 32). Besides, the observed increase in NFκB activity during androgen dependence to androgen independence transition in the LAPC4 xenograft model was terminated 33).
One small study 34) from 2006 found that drinking a daily 227ml (8oz) glass of pomegranate juice significantly slowed the progress of prostate cancer in men with recurring prostate cancer. This was a well-conducted study, but more are needed to support these findings.
A more recent study 35) from 2013 looked at whether giving men pomegranate extract tablets prior to surgery to remove cancerous tissue from the prostate would reduce the amount of tissue that needed to be removed. The results were not statistically significant, meaning they could have been down to chance.
Fermented pomegranate juice has double the antiproliferative effect compared to fresh pomegranate juice in human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 (breast cancer cell line isolated in 1970 from a 69-year-old Caucasian woman) and MB-MDA-231. In addition, pomegranate seed oil caused 90% prevention of proliferation of MCF-7 cells 36), 37).
Pomegranate fruit extract can inhibit several signaling pathways, which can be used in the treatment of human lung cancer. Pathways include Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) PI3K/Akt and NFκB. In addition, there was a 4 day delay in the appearance of tumors (from 15 to 19 days) in mice implanted with A549 cells. These studies indicate the chemopreventive effects of pomegranate fruit extract 38).
Adams et al. 39) have reported the anti-inflammatory effects of pomegranate juice on the signaling proteins in HT-29 human colon cancer cell line. Reduction in phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NFκB, its binding to the NFκB response, and 79% inhibition in TNF-α protein expression have been observed with 50 mg/L concentration of pomegranate extract.
It has been demonstrated that pomegranate oil has chemopreventive efficacy in mice. Reduced tumor incidence (7%), decrease in tumor numbers, reduction in ornithine decarboxylase activity (17%), significant inhibition in elevated Tissue plasminogen activator-mediated skin edema and hyperplasia, protein expression of ODC and COX-2, and epidermal ODC activity have been reported with pomegranate oil treatments 40), 41). Pomegranate extract in various concentrations (5-60 mg/L) was effective against UVA- and UVB-induced damage in SKU-1064 fibroblast cells of human, which was relevant in reducing NFκB transcription, downregulating proapoptotic caspase-3, and elevating the G0/G1 phase associated with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) repair 42).
Pomegranate juice is an affluent source of polyphenols with high antioxidative potential. Moreover, its antiatherogenic, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory effects have been shown in limited studies in human and murine models 43).
Hypertension is the most common disease in primary care of patients. It is found in comorbidity with diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and the majority of patients do not tend to be medicated. Pomegranate juice prevents the activity of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme and reduces systolic blood pressure 44). Angiotensin II acute subcutaneous administration causes increased blood pressure in diabetic Wistar rats. It has been shown that pomegranate juice administration (100 mg/kg) for 4 weeks could reduce the mean arterial blood pressure 45). Pomegranate juice consumption resulted in 30% decrease in carotid intima-media thickness after 1 year. The patient’s serum paraoxonase 1 activity showed 83% increase, whereas both serum low dwnsity lipoprotein (LDL) basal oxidative state and LDL susceptibility to copper ion significantly decreased by 90% and 95%, respectively 46).
Punicic acid, which is the main constituent of pomegranate seed oil, has antiatherogenic effects. In a study on 51 hyperlipidemic patients, pomegranate seed oil was administered twice a day (800 mg/day) for 4 weeks. There was a significant decrease in triglycerides (TG) and TG: High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio by 2.75 mmol/L and 5.7 mmol/L, respectively, whereas serum cholesterol, LDL-C, and glucose concentration remained unchanged 47).
High plasma LDL concentration is the major risk factor for atherosclerosis. Therefore, LDL modifications, including oxidation, retention, and aggregation, play a key role in atherosclerosis as well. Studies have shown that consuming pomegranate juice for 2 weeks resulted in declined retention and aggregation of LDL susceptibility and increased activity of serum paraoxonase (a protective lipid peroxidation esterase related to HDL) by 20% in humans. Pomegranate juice administration in mice for 14 weeks showed reduced LDL oxidation by peritoneal macrophages by more than 90%, which was because of reduced cellular lipid peroxidation and superoxide release. The uptake of oxidized LDL showed 20% reduction in mice. The size of atherosclerotic lesions reduced by 44% after pomegranate juice supplementation 48). Moreover, pomegranate juice administration to apolipoprotein E-deficient mice with advanced atherosclerosis for 2 months reduced oxidized LDL (31%) and increased macrophage cholesterol efflux (39%) 49).
In cultured human endothelial cells and hypercholesterolemic mice, both pomegranate juice and fruit extract reduced the activation of ELK-1 and p-CREB (oxidation-sensitive responsive genes) and elevated the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. It is suggested that polyphenolic antioxidant compounds in pomegranate juice are responsible for the reduction of oxidative stress and atherogenesis 50).
In another study 51), concentrated pomegranate juice was shown to reduce heart disease risk factors. Administration of concentrated pomegranate juice to 22 diabetic type 2 patients with hyperlipidemia could significantly reduce TC, LDL-C, LDL-C: HDL-C ratio, and TC: HDL-C ratio. However, it was unable to decrease serum TG and HDL-C concentrations.
Oral administration of pomegranate flower aqueous extract in streptozotocin-induced albino Wistar rats in both 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg doses for 21 days could significantly reduce fibrinogen (FBG), TC, TG, LDL-C, and tissue lipid peroxidation level and increased the level of HDL-C and glutathione content 52).
Heart fibrosis increases among diabetics, which results in impairing cardiac function. Endothelin (ET)-1 and NFκB are interactive fibroblast growth regulators. It is suggested that pomegranate flower extract (500 mg/kg/day) in Zucker diabetic fatty rats could reduce the ratios of van Gieson-stained interstitial collagen deposit area to a total left ventricular area and perivascular collagen deposit areas to coronary artery media area in the heart and diminishes cardiac fibrosis in these rats. In addition, overexpressed cardiac fibronectin and collagen I and II messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were inhibited. It also decreased the upregulated cardiac mRNA expression of ET-1, ETA, inhibitor-κBβ, and c-jun. Pomegranate flower extract is a dual activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α and γ and improves hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and fatty heart in diabetic fatty Zucker rats 53), 54).
Punicic acid caused a dose-dependent increase in PPAR alpha and gamma reporter activity in 3T3-L1 cells. Dietary punicic acid reduced plasma glucose, suppressed NFκB activation and unregulated TNF-α expression and PPAR-α/γ responsive genes in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle 55).
Pomegranate leaf extract was administered (400 and 800 mg/kg/day) to high-fat-diet-induced obese and hyperlipidemic mouse models for 5 weeks. The results indicated significant reduction in body weight, energy intake (based on food intake), serum total cholesterol (TC), TG, FBG, and TC/HDL-C ratio. Intestinal fat absorption was inhibited as well 56).
The high fat diet (HFD) with 1% pomegranate seed oil (rich source of punicic acid) was administered for 12 weeks to induce obesity and insulin resistance in mice. The pomegranate seed oil-fed group exhibited lower body weight (4%) and body fat mass (3.1%) compared with only HFD-fed mice. A clear improvement was observed in peripheral insulin sensitivity (70%) in pomegranate seed oil-administered rats 57).
Fatty liver is the most common abnormal liver function among diabetics. Pomegranate flower was examined for its antidiabetic effects on diabetic type II and obese Zucker rats. Rats fed with 500 mg/kg/day of pomegranate flower extract for 6 weeks showed decreased ratio of liver weight to tibia length, lipid droplets, and hepatic TG contents. In addition, it increased PPRA-α and Acyl-COA oxidase mRNA levels in HepG2 cells 58).
In a study by de Nigris et al. 59), they compared the influence of pomegranate fruit extract with pomegranate juice on nitric oxide and arterial function in obese Zucker rats. They have demonstrated that both pomegranate fruit extract and juice significantly reduced the vascular inflammatory markers expression, thrombospondin, and cytokine TGFP 1. Increased plasma nitrite and nitrate were observed with administration of either pomegranate fruit or juice.
Many studies have reported the anti-inflammatory potential of pomegranate extract. In a study on 30 Sprague-Dawley rats with acute inflammation due to myringotomy, it was observed that 100 μl/day of pomegranate extract could significantly reduce reactive-oxygen species (ROS) levels. The extract was administered 1 day before and 2 days after surgery. Reduced thickness of lamina propria and vessel density was reported as well 60). Both ellagitannins and ellagic acid are the main components of pomegranate extract, which have anti-inflammatory properties. They are metabolized by gut microbiota to yield urolithins. It is suggested that urolithins are the main components responsible for the anti-inflammation properties of pomegranate. It is suggested that NFκB activation, MAPK downregulation of COX-2, and mPGES-1 expression were inhibited through a decrease in PGE2 production 61). Neutrophils play key roles in inflammatory processes by releasing great amounts of ROS generated by NADPH-oxidase and myeloperoxidase. It is indicated that punicic acid exhibited a potent anti-inflammatory effect via prevention of TNF-α-induced priming of NADPH oxidase by targeting the p38MAPKinase/Ser 345-p 47 phox-axis and releasing MPO 62). Hyperglycemia results in oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus, which is a major factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Results suggested that pomegranate extract, owing to its polyphenol-rich antioxidants (oleanolic, ursolic, and gallic acids), could prevent cardiovascular complications through decrease in LDL, increase in HDL, serum paraoxonase 1 stability and activity, and nitric oxide production 63), 64), 65).
The most common forms of arthritis are osteoarthritis and its major progressive degenerative joint disease, which could affect joint functions and quality of life in patients. It is mediated by proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 and TNF-α. MAPKs are important due to their inflammatory and cartilage damage regulation 66). P38-MAPKs are responsible for regulating cytokine production, neutrophils activation, apoptosis, and nitric oxide synthesis. The MAPK family phosphorylates a number of transcription factors such as runt-related transcription factor-2 (RUNX-2) 67).
Pomegranate extract, with its rich source of polyphenols, can inhibit IL-1 β-induced activation of MKK3, DNA-binding activity of RUNX-2 transcription factor, and p38 α-MAPK isoform 68).
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that affects 0.5-1% of people worldwide. Women are afflicted more than men. This inflammatory disease is characterized by inflammation and bone erosion 69), 70). Critical mediators in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis are TNF-α, IL-1 β, MCP1, Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and COX-2-agents, which are stimulated by p38-MAPK and NFκB activation 71), 72).
The pomegranate has been used for centuries to treat inflammatory diseases, and people with rheumatoid arthritis sometimes take dietary supplements containing a pomegranate extract called POMx. However, little is known about the efficacy of POMx in suppressing joint problems associated with rheumatoid arthritis.
In a recent study, researchers from Case Western Reserve University and Aligarh (India) Muslim University used an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis—collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice—to evaluate the effects of POMx. The animals received either POMx or water by stomach tube before and after collagen injection to induce arthritis. POMx significantly reduced the incidence and severity of CIA in the mice. The arthritic joints of the POMx-fed mice had less inflammation, and destruction of bone and cartilage were alleviated. Consumption of POMx, the researchers also concluded, selectively inhibited signal transduction pathways and cytokines critical to development and maintenance of inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis 73). Severity of arthritis, joint inflammation, and IL-6 level were significantly reduced in pomegranate extract-fed mice 74).
Although previous studies of POMx found cartilage-protective effects in human cell cultures, this is the first study to observe positive effects in a live model. The researchers note that the data from this study suggest the potential efficacy of POMx for arthritis prevention, but not for treatment in the presence of active inflammation; future studies will address disease-modifying effects of POMx. They also note that clinical trials are needed before POMx can be recommended as safe and effective for rheumatoid arthritis-related use in people 75).
Since bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs is increasing, medicinal plants have been considered as alternative agents. Pomegranate has been widely approved for its antimicrobial properties 76), 77), 78). It has been shown that dried powder of pomegranate peel has a high inhibition of Candida albicans 79). In addition, antimicrobial effects of both methanol and dichloromethane pomegranate extracts have been demonstrated on the Candida genus yeast as pathogen-causing disease in immunosuppressive host 80). Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (multiple antibiotics resistant) produce panta valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin, which can lead to higher levels of morbidity and mortality 81), 82). It is indicated that a combination of pomegranate peel extract with Cu (II) ions exhibit enhanced antimicrobial effects against isolated MSSA, MRSA, and PVL 83). One of the leading etiological bacteria of urinary tract infections is Escherichia Coli. Strong antibacterial activity of ethanol extract against E. coli has been shown 84).
Solar ultraviolet radiations are the primary causes of many biological effects such as photoaging and skin cancer. These radiations resulted in DNA damage, protein oxidation, and matrix metalloproteinases induction. In one study, the effects of pomegranate juice, extract, and oil were examined against UVB-mediated damage. These products caused a decrease in UVB-induced protein expression of c-Fos and phosphorylation of c-Jun 85). On the other hand, production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 β and IL-6 was decreased by topical application of 10 micromol/L of ellagic acid. The inflammatory macrophages infiltration was blocked in the integuments of SKH-1 hairless UVB-exposed mice for 8 weeks 86).
The interbacterial coaggregations and these bacterial interactions with yeasts are related to the maintenance of oral microbiota. It is indicated that dried, powdered pomegranate peel shows a strong inhibition of C. albicans with a mean zone of 22 mm. In another study, the antiplaque effect of pomegranate mouth rinse has been reported 87). In addition, hydroalcoholic extract of pomegranate was very effective against dental plaque microorganisms (84% decrease (cfu/ml)) 88).
One of the main constituents (16%) of the methanolic pomegranate seed extract is beta-sitosterol. It is suggested that the extract is a potent phasic activity stimulator in rat uterus, which happens due to the non-estrogenic effects of beta-sitosterol on inhibiting sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase (SERCA) and K channel, which resulted in contraction by calcium entry on L-type calcium channels and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). It is demonstrated that pomegranate fruit extract has an embryonic protective nature against adrianycin-induced oxidative stress (adrianycin is a chemotherapeutic drug used in cancer treatment) 89). Moreover, pomegranate juice consumption could increase epididymal sperm concentration, motility, spermatogenic cell density, diameter of seminiferous tubules and germinal cell layer thickness 90).
Hartman et al. 91) showed that mice treated by pomegranate juice have 50% less soluble Abeta 42 accumulation and amyloid deposition in the hippocampus, which could be considered for Alzheimer’s disease improvement.
In the presence of pomegranate fruit rind, the induced MMP-9 mRNA levels by haemozoin or TNF was decreased, which may be attributed to the antiparasitic activity and the inhibition of the proinflammatory mechanisms responsible in the onset of cerebral malaria 92), 93).
The anti-HIV-1 microbicide of pomegranate juice blocks virus binding to CD4 and CXCR4/CCR5, thereby preventing infection by primary virus clades A to G and group O 94).
Use of pomegranate extract and flower showed significant reduction in wound area and increased the well-organized bands of collagen, fibroblasts, and few inflammatory cells 95), 96). Properties of elevated wound contraction and the period of epithelialization, collagen, and protein synthesis were reported in hydroalcoholic pomegranate extract.
Many studies have been carried out on the different components derived from pomegranate but no adverse effects have been reported in the examined dosage. Histopathological studies on both sexes of OF-1 mice confirmed the non-toxic effects of the polyphenol antioxidant punicalagin. Besides, in a study on 86 overweight human subjects who received 1420 mg/day of pomegranate fruit extract in tablet form for 28 days, no side effects or adverse changes in urine or blood of individuals were reported 97), 98).
Pomegranate is a potent antioxidant. This fruit is rich in flavonoids, anthocyanins, punicic acid, ellagitannins, alkaloids, fructose, sucrose, glucose, simple organic acids, and other components and has antiatherogenic, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory properties. Eventhough pomegranate can be used in the prevention and treatment of several types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and other diseases, mainly in laboratory animals and in petri dishes. We don’t have a lot of strong scientific evidence on the effects of pomegranate for people’s health. Many in vitro, animal and clinical trials have been carried out to examine and prove the therapeutic effects of these compounds, further human trials and studies are necessary to understand the therapeutic potentials of pomegranate 99).
- A 2012 clinical trial of about 100 dialysis patients suggested that pomegranate juice may help ward off infections. In the study, the patients who were given pomegranate juice three times a week for a year had fewer hospitalizations for infections and fewer signs of inflammation, compared with patients who got the placebo.
- Pomegranate extract in mouthwash may help control dental plaque, according to a small 2011 clinical trial with 30 healthy participants.
- Pomegranate may help improve some signs of heart disease but the research isn’t definitive.
Lastly, Federal agencies have taken action against companies (POM Pomegranate) selling pomegranate juice and supplements for deceptive advertising and making drug-like claims about the products. For more on this, view the NCCIH Director’s Page entitled Excessive Claims 100).
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